Art in Prison Resources, Research and Articles
Each week a piece of research or an article involving arts in prisons will be available. Below is a beginning of an annotated bibliography of the text resources…
January 14, 2016
Waller, D. (2013). Background to art therapy. Becoming a profession (Psychology revivals): The history of art therapy in Britain 140-82 (pp. 3-25). England: Routledge.
The chapter ‘Background to art therapy’ in the book Becoming a Profession: The history of art therapy in Britain 1940-82 by Diane Waller provides a well rounded explanation of the history of art and art therapy within Britain. Waller reviews the founders and of art therapy and art as healing including Margaret Naumburg, Edith Kramer, Adrian Hill, as well as many involved in the implementation of art into hospital, sanatorium and prison settings including Marie Petrie, Winston Churchill, Irene Champernowne, Edward Adamson, E. Cunningham Dax, E. M. Lyddiatt, Ralph Pickford, and Joyce Laing. The chapter further indulges in the meaning of art as healing and examines the establishment and integration of art in a variety of settings such as hospitals, sanatoriums and prisons. The chapter moreover includes quotes and exerts from some of the initial research and evaluation of the establishment of art in a variety of settings.
January 21, 2016
This weeks Resource, Research and Articles THREE article’s examines Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, a common disorder within prison. The articles vary on focus from FASD in prison to the effectiveness of art with individuals who suffer from FASD. There is a 55% chance that an individual with FASD will be confined to prison (www.fasdnetwork.org/what-is-fasd.html).
Heidema, C. (2008, November 16). Prison is no solution for victims of FASD; Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder sufferers face an increased risk of incarceration. Times – Colonist. Retrieved from: http://www.prisonjustice.ca/starkravenarticles/FASD_1108.html
The newspaper article ‘Prison is no solution for victims of FASD; Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder sufferers face an increased risk of incarceration’ by Cathy Heidema discusses the challenges individuals with FASD face while in prison. Heidma briefly addresses how the prison environment can hinder individuals with FASD. She further includes percentages of individuals with FASD whom become incarcerated. The article was published in Canada.
Thomson, G. (2010, August 21). More prisons won’t help those with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder; Many repeat offenders suffer from FASD but better programs needed. Edmonton Journal. Retrieved from: http://fetalalcoholconference.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/More_prisons_wont_help_those_with_fetal_alcohol_spectrum_disorder.pdf
The newspaper article ‘More prisons won’t help those with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder; Many repeat offenders suffer from FASD but better programs needed’ by Graham Thomson addresses FASD as a ‘brain injury’ and how incarcerating individuals is unjust when evaluating individuals ability to make decisions. The article includes a true story about an individual with FASD and the difficulties in parenting a child with FASD.
Rafferty-Bugher, E. and Brown, J. (2015). FASD and art therapy: An exploratory review. Forensic Scholars Today, 3(1: FASD Special Edition), 1-6. Retrieved from: http://online.csp.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/FST-1.3-FASD-and-Art-Therapy-An-Exploratory-Review.pdf
The article ‘FASD and art therapy: An exploratory review’ by Erin Rafferty-Bugher and Jerrod Brown evaluates the usefulness of art therapy with individuals with FASD. The authors state the difficulties that individuals with FASD confront, but also how art can assist in decreasing the adversities. The article concludes with discussing a few art therapy assessments to evaluate art and decreasing FASD difficulties and provides examples of successful art activities.
January 28, 2016
Gussak, D. (2004). Art therapy with prison inmates: A pilot study. The Arts in Psychotherapy (31): 245-259. doi: 10.1016/j.aip.2004.06.001. Retrieved from: http://arttherapyinprison.com/?page_id=65
This weeks’ Resource, Research and Articles is a research article: “Art therapy with prison inmates: A pilot study” by David Gussak. Gussak is a well-known American Art Therapist who has completed extensive research of the usefulness of art therapy within prison. This article examines helpfulness of art as non-verbal therapy, for the reason that is not as threatening and therefore does not make the inmates vulnerable while disclosing information. Gussak further states that art is able to bypass unconscious and conscious barriers in order to express multifaceted information that would not be verbally accessible. Gussak further examines how art therapy alleviates mental health issues that increase in prisons, such as depression and schizophrenia, and increases positive moods and he states that art therapy is useful for bypassing inmate’s resistance in order to assist in healing and treating mental health issues. The article concludes with case studies of participants.
February 4, 2016
Williams, K., Papadopoulou, V., Booth, N. (2012). Prisoners’ childhood and family backgrounds: Result from the Surveying Prisoner Crime Reduction (SPCR) longitudinal cohort study of prisoners. Ministry of Justice Research Series 4(12), 1-38. Retrieved from: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/278837/prisoners-childhood-family-backgrounds.pdf
The research article conducted by the Ministry of Justice Analytical Services and written by Kim Williams, Vea Papadopoulous and Natalie Booth, “Prisoners’ childhood and family backgrounds: Result from the Surveying Prisoner Crime Reduction (SPCR) longitudinal cohort study of prisoners” examines the common childhood experiences that have occurred in the lived of individuals whom are in prison. The article explains common risk factors that are associated with imprisonment and the intergenerational effect that imprisonment has on families. The authors include percentages for evaluating the impact of physical, mental and emotional abuse, substance misuse, childhood and family experiences, education and concludes with examining the issues following individual’s release. The research is based mostly within an English and Wales context.
February 11, 2016
McCarthy, P., Laing, K., Walker, J. (2004). Offenders of the future? Assessing the risk of children and young people becoming involved in criminal or antisocial behaviour (Report No. 545). Retrieved from: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130401151715/http://www.education.gov.uk/publications/eOrderingDownload/RR545.pdf
The research article “Offenders of the future? Assessing the risk of children and young people becoming involved in criminal or antisocial behaviour” by Peter McCarthy, Karen Laing and Janet Walker evaluated the risk factors of children associated with delinquency. The risk factors reviewed include that of the individual, family, school and community. The article further suggests interventions of working within the individual family, school and community setting in order to lower the likelihood that children will become involved in criminal activity or antisocial behaviour. The article extensively reviews the risk, protection, resilience and need in terms of a child’s microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem and macrosystem. Furthermore, the article provides a useful understanding of the process of ethical research for studying children and young people.
February 18, 2016
Scottish Association for Mental Health (SAMH). (n.d.). SAMH research briefing: Mental health and criminal justice in Scotland. Retrieved from: https://www.samh.org.uk/our-work/public-affairs/criminal-justice
Within the research article “SAMH research briefing: Mental health and criminal justice in Scotland” by the Scottish Association for Mental Health (SAMH) (n.d.) the authors address the issues of mental health within prisons. The article identifies percentages of individuals within prison whom were diagnosed with a mental health issue. A brief explanation of common issues associated with individuals becoming incarcerated is reviewed, as well as the demographics. The article is based in a Scottish prison context.
February 25, 2015
Kirschenbaum, H., Jourdan, A. (2005). The current status of Carl Rogers and the person-centered approach. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training (42:10), 37-51. doi: 10.1037/0033-3184.108.40.206
The journal article “The Current Status of Carl Rogers and the Person-Centered Approach” by Howard Kirchenbaum and April Jourdan evaluates the current use of the Person-Centered approach. On page 46 the authors review the usefulness of the person-centered approach within prisons and how it is an effective model within prisons. The significance of a person-centered therapeutic relationship is further reviewed. The article concludes with the acknowledgement that current social workers and therapists are moving towards a more “eclecticism and integration” (Kirchenbaum & Jourdan, 2005, p. 47)
March 3, 2016
Scottish Children’s Reporter Administration. (2016). High Risk Young Offenders [Fact sheet]. Retrieved from: http://www.scra.gov.uk/publications/scra_fact_sheets.cfm
Often society blames the individual who convicted the crime, rather then looking at the larger societal explanation, which often includes injustice that occurred to the child, which may be recognized as risk factors for offending. The “High Risk Young Offenders” fact sheet produced by the Scottish Children’s Reporter Administration (2016) provides a brief, point-form explanation of the common factors associated with youth and adult offending. The risk factors mentioned include a child’s background and behaviour within a home and school and/or peer setting.
March 10, 2016
Upon discussion about the ‘Rat Park’ experiment, it was decided to focus this weeks article on the issue of isolation and addiction. Bellow are two relevant documents about the ‘Rat Park’ experiment. The experiment included two groups of rats. In one group the rats were placed in a ‘park’ that was filled with toys, running wheels and other rats. The second group of rats were kept in isolation from each other in cages. Both rats had access to morphine. The rats within the park scarcely accessed the morphine, whereas individuals in isolation often used the morphine. The study sought to explain why individuals access addictive substances, the conclusion being that a large factor of substance abuse was social exclusion and isolation.
To view a useful comic about the ‘Rat Park’ experiment, check out:
March 17, 2016
Murphy, D., Duggan, M., Joseph, S. (2012). Relationship-based social work and its compatibility with the person-centred approach: Principled versus instrumental perspective. British Journal of Social Work: 1-17. doi:10.1093/bjsw/bcs003
The article “Relationship-based social work and its compatibility with the person-centred approach: Principled versus instrumental perspective” by David Murphy, Maria Duggan and Stephen Joseph reviews the concept of the Person-Centred approach and the role it has within social work. The authors argue that ‘person-centered’ may not be fit in a social work setting for the reason that ‘person-centred’ involves the individual being in a positive environment, which is not often the case. The authors suggest applying a varied model for working with individuals.
March 24, 2016
Miller, L. (2006). Counselling skills for social work: Person-centred approach to using counseling skills in social work practice. London: Sage Publications. http://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/9877_039909Chapter2.pdf
Chapter 2: “Person-centred approach to using counseling skills in social work practice” in the book Counselling Skills for Social Work by Lisa Miller, reviews key concepts for the person-centered approach and key theorists and practitioners including Maslow and Rogers. Miller reviews the vital skills for the person-centered practice, including congruence, empathy and unconditional positive regard.
April 7, 2016
Mer, B. (December 2011). Arts in prison: Lessons from the United Kingdom. Retrieved from: https://theprisonartscoalition.files.wordpress.com/2011/07/artsinprison.pdf
The article “Arts in Prison: Lessons from the United Kingdom” written by Becky Mer, a Prison Arts Coalition manager, explores art within prison in a United Kingdom context. Mer explores 13 individual art forms and provides lessons per subject. Each lesson includes recommendation for certain groups of participants, such as (Y) young people, (W) women and girls, (F) families of participants and so on, as well as benefits (B) and harms (H) that the lesson plans can result in. She further reviews the creative models for working within prisons, guidance for working in the prison sector and direction for structuring art within prison. The article encompasses important aspects of working within the prison and is useful for individuals new to facilitating art in prison and those who are experienced. Much of Mer’s research reflects arts practitioners from arts organizations and employed in prison, officials in the prison service, senior prison administrators, officers, program participants, former prisoners and researchers.
April 14, 2016
Tracey, S. (2007). Creative reflection, creative practice: Expressing the inexpressible. Presented at the University of Wales Institute, Cardiff in collaboration with the Higher Education Academy. Retrieved from: www.creativityconference07.org/tabled_papers/Tracey_Creative.doc
Shelley Tracey examines the Creative Reflection Model in the article “Creative reflection, creative practice: Expressing the inexpressible” (2007). Tracey explores the framework for the model, emphasizing on action and reflection. Tracey explains the model by dividing up the process into preparation, play, exploration and synthesis. This model, as mentioned by Becky Mer in her article “Arts in Prison: Lessons from the United Kingdom” (2007) can be used within an art in prison context.
April 21, 2016
Sobin, D. (2010). Creating art in prison. Art on the inside: Understanding and helping imprisoned artists (pp. 7-25). Washinton, DC: Foundation House Publishing.
This weeks’ “Resource, Research and Article” features the first chapter of the book Art on the inside: Understanding and helping imprisoned artists, by Dennis Sobin (2010). Within the chapter ‘Creating art in prison,’ Sobin explains art in prison and clarifies the perceived positives and negatives. Sobin’s perspective is unique, as his opinion is formed through the knowledge of being incarcerated. Within the first chapter Sobin reviews the artistic opportunities available for individuals within prison, but also the lack of. He further explains the means by which artists create art and the value of art within prison. The book as a whole is insightful and is written in a way that holds the reader. Real stories are included and the impact of visual art and creative writing are examined.
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